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Shipbuilding in Japan 2002

 事業名 造船関連海外情報収集及び海外業務協力事業
 団体名 シップ・アンド・オーシャン財団  


International Cooperation
 
Establishment of Normal Competitive Conditions and Stabilization of Supply-Demand Balance in the World Shipbuilding Market
 Shipbuilders of large oceangoing ships operate in a single worldwide market, in which they compete for a share of limited demand. The competitive environment in this international market can be greatly affected by the industrial policy of any one nation or the order taking practices of builders from any one country. Therefore, policy coordination among major shipbuilding nations is indispensable for healthy development of the industry as a whole. Based on this perception, Japan has been actively seeking international cooperation both in the framework of the OECD Council Working Party on Shipbuilding and through bilateral consultations.
 Especially in recent years, a global expansion in newbuilding capacity has triggered a supply-demand imbalance in the shipbuilding market, and worryingly this imbalance is showing signs of further worsening. Therefore, there are fears that, in the absence of suitable rules, fair competition may be impeded by government subsidies and rampant dumping practices. At present, competition is regulated at the international level by the WTO agreement, however due to the existence of flag-of-convenience (FOC) system and other factors, the usual concepts of export and import do not necessarily apply and subsequently the agreement does not function effectively for this unique industry. Therefore, an international agreement that can accommodate the specific character of shipbuilding is called for.
 Moreover, in recent years the construction of new facilities and the expansion and/or modernization of existing facilities in newly emerging shipbuilding countries including China have led to a dramatic rise in shipbuilding capacities and outputs in these countries. Accordingly, dialogue with new entrants constitutes an important part of international coordination of shipbuilding policy from now on.
 In view of these circumstances, Japan to tackle these issues in the following ways:
i)
By formulating Effective rules within a market mechanism that fully reflect the unique nature of ship trade. By facilitating the effective functioning of market forces and by establishing a level playing field.
ii)
By continuing Efforts to coordinate official policies among major shipbuilding countries, and participating in closer dialogue with newly emerging shipbuilding nations, including the fast rising China, and thereby ensuring the sphere of policy coordination expands.
iii)
By encouraging shipbuilders to do business in an appropriate manner. Coordination of shipbuilding policies of the countries concerned should be realized by developing an accurate common perception of the supply-demand balance and market trends including overall shipbuilding price levels.
 
Dredger-oil-skimmer, Hakusan, operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

300,373DWT double-hull VLCC, Tateyama, built by NKK Corp. (present Universal Shipbuilding Corp.)
 
Initiatives at OECD Council Working Party on Shipbuilding
 The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) Council Working Party on Shipbuilding is the sole forum for multilateral policy discussions on shipbuilding issues. The working party consists of principal shipbuilding countries, such as Japan, member countries of the European Union (EU) and the Republic of Korea (ROK). Since its first meeting in May 1966, the working party has discussed market issues including the need to stabilize the supply-demand balance and ensure normal competitive conditions.
 The following major issues are currently being discusses by the Working Party.
a)
Early formulation of a new discipline (new Shipbuilding Agreement) which can fully function in the shipbuilding market, to replace the existing Shipbuilding Agreement which has not yet come into effect, and to ensure normal competitive conditions in the international shipbuilding market.
b)
Establishing closer dialogue with newly emerging shipbuilding countries, including China, which are not members of the Working Party on Shipbuilding.
c)
Periodic forecasting of supply-demand trends and monitoring shipbuilding price tends, and sharing the resultant information in order to develop a common perception of market trends.
 
75,l57DWT bulk carrier, Pearl Of Jebel Ali, built by Hitachi Zosen Corp. (present Universal Shipbuilding Corp.)
 
Dialogue with Principal Shipbuilding Countries
(a)
Republic of Korea
The combined newbuilding output of Japan and the ROK accounts for about 70% of the world total. Therefore, the shipbuilding policies of these two countries have significant impact on the business climate in the international market. Cooperation between the two countries is not just a bilateral issue, but is of vital importance to the steady development of the world shipbuilding industry. In view of this, the Japan and the ROK governments have since 1984 been exchanging views about twice a year through periodic bilateral consultations.
(b)
European Union (EU)
European shipbuilders construct mainly passenger ships and other high value-added vessels and continue to be major players in the world shipbuilding market together with their Japanese and Korean counterparts. They also play a leading role in the forums of international policy coordination, including the OECD Council Working Party on Shipbuilding, in regard to the problems facing the international shipbuilding market. In view of their important position, bilateral discussions between Japan and the EU have been held from time to time with a view to smooth policy coordination.
(c)
China
Since 1980, China has successively completed new shipbuilding facilities and expansion of existing facilities for oceangoing vessels, and has rapidly increased both its shipbuilding output and its newbuilding order intake over the last few years. It is now the third biggest shipbuilding country in the world. Furthermore, as China continues to install more modern shipbuilding facilities while reorganizing the industry to with the objectives of dividing the policy making sector from the operational sector and consolidating or discarding less productive shipbuilding facilities, the country is expected to have an even greater potential impact on the market in the future. For these reasons Japan began government-level dialogue with China in fiscal 2000.
 
50,339 DWT bulk carrier, Sun Master, built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Present Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corp.)
Economic and Technical Cooperation in the Field of Shipbuilding
 In many developing countries, ships play a vital part in people's daily life as well as in socio-economic development as important means of passenger and cargo transport. However, at present some of these countries find difficulties in the supply of newly built tonnage and the maintenance of existing tonnage on account of the lack of financial and technical resources.
 Moreover, public concern has been rising in recent years about the safety of marine transport and the prevention of marine pollution, and the need for institutional arrangements to address these issues has increased significantly. At the same time, in the context of the move towards eliminating substandard vessels, some countries are particularly interested in developing their ship recycling business. Developing countries are now expecting Japan not only to supply active tonnage but also to provide international assistance in both hardware and software aspects covering diverse areas including the construction of shipbreaking yards and guidance in pertinent legislation.
 Furthermore, to take note of the ripple effect of shipbuilding on the related industries, cooperation in the shipbuilding area will stimulate general economic development in those countries.
 Thus Japan, availing itself of its advanced shipbuilding technology, will actively extend economic and technical assistance in the fields of shipping and shipbuilding.
 
The Economic and Technical Cooperation with Developing Countries
 Projects currently supported by Japan include:
1)
Loan assistance and grant assistance (provision of training schools related to ships, shipbuilding facilities and shipbuilding, and equipment for crew education).
2)
Dispatch of experts to governments, shipyards and other organizations in developing countries (for cooperation in the formulation of shipbuilding and ship safety policies and in the improvement of ship inspection systems, and advising on the upgrading of shipyard management and shipbuilding technology).
3)
Acceptance of trainees (group training in the "International Maritime Conventions and Ship Safety Inspection" and "Shipbuilding and Quality Assurance Systems," as well as training in general shipbuilding technology and ship inspection on an individual basis).
4)
Developmental surveys for shipping and shipbuilding projects (execution of feasibility studies and drafting of master plans).
 
 Grants under item 1) and aids under items 2) through 4) are provided through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), while loans under 1) are provided through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) in cooperation with the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure Transport (MLIT) and the Overseas Shipbuilding Cooperation Center (OSCC).
 
International Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region
 The Asia-Pacific Shipbuilding Experts Meeting (APSEM) is held once a year with the aim of facilitating regional cooperation in the area of shipbuilding and to contribute to the development of shipbuilding in the countries of the region. At these meetings, shipbuilding experts from participating countries exchange opinions and information on shipbuilding. The 25th APSEM was held in October 2001 in Tokyo, Japan.
 
Private Sector Initiatives in International Cooperation
 International exchange is also ongoing in private sector organizations.
 A regular meeting of top executives from major shipbuilding concerns in Japan, Europe, the ROK and the US. This group (also known as the JEKU Top Executive Meeting) considers topics such as trends in the shipbuilding market, the supply-demand balances, and substandard vessels. In October 2001, the tenth meeting was held in Spain.
 The Shipbuilders' Association of Japan (SAJ) has continued to hold expert meetings on newbuilding requirement forecasts and shipbuilding capacity evaluations with the Association of European Shipbuilders and Ship Repairers (AWES), the Korean Shipbuilders' Association (KSA) and The American Shipbuilding Association (ASA).
 Regarding the problem of substandard vessels, all the major shipbuilders' associations are committed to the activities of the Committee for the Elimination of Substandard Ships (CESS).
 At these meetings, shipbuilders are endeavoring to develop common perceptions and thereby encourage international cooperation at the private industry level.
 
APSEM held in Tokyo, October 22 to 26, 2001







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更新日: 2020年5月23日

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