Ships and marine technology ― Breathing apparatus for ships ― Part 1: Emergency escape breathing devices (EEBD) for shipboard use
This standard provides performance specifications for emergency escape breathing devices (EEBD) required by regulation in Part D of chapter II-2 of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 1974), as amended, and chapter 3 of the International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code) of IMO. These devices are intended to supply air or oxygen needed to escape from accommodation and machinery spaces which have a hazardous atmosphere. They are not intended for use in fighting fires, entering oxygen-deficient voids or tanks, or to be worn by fire-fighters.
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 7854: 1984, Rubber or plastics coated fabrics - Determination of resistance to damage by flexing (dynamic method)
ISO 4674: 1977, Fabrics coated with rubber or plastics - Determination of tear resistance
International Convention of Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS 74), Chapter II-2, as amended
International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code)
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions shall apply.
3.1 Competent authority
Administration whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, or an organization authorized by an administration, to perform functions required by this international standard
3.2 high pressure component
Parts exposed to the pressure of the container situated between the container and the pressure regulator.
3.3 medium pressure component
Parts exposed to the pressure that has been reduced by regulator.
3.4 relief valve
Device preventing the excessive pressurization of the breathing circuit.
4.1 System design and performance
4.1.1 The EEBD shall have a full face piece designed to form a complete seal around the eyes, nose and mouth which is secured in position by a suitable means, or a hood which completely covers the head and neck, either of which may have a mouthpiece and nose clip.
4.1.2 The EEBD shall be so designed that there are no protruding parts or sharp edges likely to be caught on projections in narrow passages or that may hurt the wearer.
4.1.3 The EEBD shall be designed to ensure its full function in any orientation of the EEBD.
4.1.4 If the EEBD is equipped with a compressed air/gas container, it shall be equipped with a pressure indicator to show that the container is fully charged ready for use, independently of the action of the container seal.
4.1.5 An unactivated EEBD shall be capable of being carried hands-free.
4.1.6 A pressure indicator incorporating a suitable blow-out release shall be provided, such that in the event of an explosion or fracture of the pressure indicator, the release shall be away from the wearer. The blow-out release shall be protected from dirt and mechanical damages.
4.1.7 If the window is incorporated in the pressure indicator, it shall be of non-splintering clear material.
4.1.8 The pressure indicator shall use no oil.
4.1.9 The relief valve for breathing bag of a closed-circuit oxygen type device, if provided, shall be so designed as to function properly in any orientation in the bag and be protected from dirt and mechanical damages.
4.1.10 The EEBD shall be so designed as to prevent the chemical, if used, from entering the wearer's respiratory tract, and to ensure that saliva or condensate shall not interfere with the function of the device or cause any harmful effect to the wearer.
4.1.11 The EEBD shall be designed so as to prevent inadvertent activation.
4.1.12 Dummy devices and components which are intended exclusively for training shall not be interchangeable with operational devices or components, and shall be manufactured and marked in such a way that they are clearly distinguishable from and cannot be inadvertently confused with operational devices.
4.1.13 Parts attached to the EEBD shall be firmly fixed so that they do not come apart easily.
4.1.14 Compressed air/gas containers and their valves shall comply with appropriate national regulations.
4.1.15 Breathing hoses, if fitted, shall be flexible and non-kinking.
4.1.16 The air/gas provided in the container shall be clean, dry, and free of contaminants. Compressed air or oxygen shall comply with relevant national standard.
NOTE EN 12021 and EN 400 provide relevant standard of air or oxygen for this purpose.
4.1.17 EEBD shall withstand anticipated shock, as to comply with the shock test in 5.1.4.
4.1.18 Where the EEBD is intended to store in machinery spaces, the suitable container or cover such as box, bag or case shall be provided to prevent contamination.
4.1.19 The EEBD shall meet the requirements described in paragraphs 5, 6, and 7.
4.2 Face piece
4.2.1 Mouthpiece and non-closed hood type
126.96.36.199 The mouthpiece shall facilitate reliable sealing and it shall not be possible to inadvertently block the breathing circuit when the device is in operation. The mouthpiece shall be fitted with an adjustable or self-adjusting harness if it is likely that an undue load is exerted on the wearer's mouth otherwise.
188.8.131.52 The nose clip shall provide an airtight seal of the nose. It shall be flexibly attached to the mouthpiece assembly such that, when fitting the mouthpiece, the wearer's attention is automatically drawn to the nose clip.
184.108.40.206 The hood shall be able to be donned or removed with ease.
220.127.116.11 The hood shall have a transparent part which does not distort vision to the extent to affect the movement of the wearer.
18.104.22.168 The material of breathing bag shall have a strength, which is complied with recognized international or national standards.
NOTE Test specified in EN 1146 clause 6.10.5, which refers to ISO 7854 and ISO 4674, is found suitable.
4.2.2 Full face piece type
22.214.171.124 The finish of any part of the full face piece likely to be in contact with the wearer shall be free from sharp edges and burrs.
126.96.36.199 The connection between the breathing apparatus and the full face piece may be achieved by a permanent, special or thread type connector.
188.8.131.52 Dismountable connections shall be readily connected and secured, preferably by hand, and any means of sealing used shall be retained in position when the connection(s) is (are) disconnected.
184.108.40.206 The full face piece shall be able to be donned and removed with ease.
220.127.116.11 The full face piece shall be fitted with an eyepiece which does not distort vision to the extent to affect the movement of the wearer.
4.2.3 Closed hood type
18.104.22.168 The closed hood shall be able to be donned or removed with ease.
22.214.171.124 The hood shall have a transparent part which does not distort vision to the extent to affect the movement of the wearer.
The materials and seams of hood shall meet the requirements in
5.1 The tests shall be conducted with one sample apparatus. After the following tests, the EEBD shall not break or develop deformation, corrosion, or any other defects which may render it unsuitable for use.
5.1.1 High temperature, high humidity test
The sample EEBD shall be subjected to a temperature of 65 ℃ in an atmosphere with relative humidity of not less than 90% for 48 hours, and then left in an environment of 20 - 25 ℃ with a relative humidity of 65% for 48 hours.
5.1.2 Temperature cycling test
The sample EEBD shall be subjected to a temperature of -30 ℃ for 8 hours, and then to a temperature of 65 ℃ for 8 hours, the cycle to be repeated 10 times.
5.1.3 Resonance and vibration resistance test
After the resonance tests specified in Table 1, the vibration resistance tests specified in Table 1 shall be conducted. After the tests the sample EEBD shall continue to function properly.
Table1 - EEBD Vibration tests
||Direction of vibration
||Number of tests
||Total hours of tests
||5-16Hz continuous change
||In each of the 3 planes
||3 times in each direction
||16-60Hz continuous change
||Where resonant frequency (ies) exist(s) within
the vibration test frequencies
||Amplitude or acceleration used for vibration tests
||Once in each direction
||4.5 hours (1.5 hours in each of
the 3 planes)
|No resonant frequency within the vibration test frequencies
5.1.4 Drop and shock test
126.96.36.199 Drop Shock test for EEBD which is normally carried by person
The EEBD shall be dropped from a height of 1m on to the concrete floor once
in each axis. After the tests, the EEBD shall meet the performance requirements described in paragraph
188.8.131.52 Shock test for EEBD which is normally stored when not in use
The test apparatus is shown schematically in Figure 1 and consists of a steel case (K) which is fixed on a vertically moving piston (S) capable of being lifted up 20 mm by a rotating cam (N) and dropping down onto a steel plate (P) under its own mass as the cam rotates. The mass of the steel case shall be greater than 10 kg, and the mass of the base of the equipment shall be at least 10 times as much as the case, or the equipment shall be bolted to the floor.
The EEBD shall be tested as received including fully charged compressed air or oxygen container(s), carrying container and sealing. One EEBD shall be placed in the case (K) in a test.
The test rig shall be operated at the rate of approximately 100 rotation/min for a total of 500 rotations (shock).
After the test, the EEBD shall meet the performance requirements described
in paragraph 6
NOTE This shock test is almost identical with that in EN 1146 and EN 400.
(Put here a copy of Figure 1 of EN 1146)
Figure 1 Test equipment for shock test