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ISO/TC8/SC1/WG3 ストックホルム会議報告書

 事業名 船舶関係国際標準化活動
 団体名 日本船舶標準協会 注目度注目度5


4. SYSTEM DESIGN
The designer or specifier of the escape route signing is recommended to follow the principles set out within this Code. This will ensure a uniformity of application of escape route signs which will lead to increased familiarity and therefore improve safety for the ship's passengers, crew, and visitors.
 
A system of escape route signing provided within a ship should address several needs. These include:-
(a) The evacuation and disembarkation strategy adopted for the ship or marine installation
(b) The results of the risk assessment determining the adequacy of the means of escape provision.
(c) The requirements (if any) of IMO resolutions and the enforcing authorities.
(d) The operational needs of the ship and its management.
(e) The convenience of the users of the ship both crew and the passengers.
 
Following consideration of the factors listed in 4.1 - 4.3, a comprehensive statement of requirements should be prepared and agreed by all interested parties. This should be used as the basis for the detailed design and specification for the escape route signing system.
The objective of the escape route signing system is to ensure that from any place within a ship or vessel where direct sight of an assembly station is not possible and doubt may exist as to its position, a directional sign (or series of signs) will be provided, placed so that a person moving within the means of escape is progressed towards an assembly station and then to an embarkation station via an exit. The escape route signing system shall provide both directional and positional information to give confidence and reinforcement to passengers as to their location relative to the designated assembly station for egress. The signing system shall be comprehensive to provide route guidance and also to clearly indicate the location and instructions for use of any fire fighting equipment, life saving equipment or on or adjacent to the escape routes. Any lighting in low location lighting installed according to ISO 15370 shall be consistent with the escape route signing systems designed by this standard.
 
4.1 Analysis of the problem
The following factors should be considered before designing the escape route signing systems:-
(a) The use of the ship and in particular the location and provision of suitable assembly stations for passengers and crew.
(b) The relationship of embarkation stations to assembly stations and the travel distances and difficulties that may exist to egress between them.
(c) The routes and passages taken to change deck and to move horizontally and then vertically within the ship or installation and any areas likely to experience some degree of crowding on assembly.
(c) The regulations applicable to the ship and the requirements, if any, of the enforcing authorities.
(d) The management system controlling the use of the ship eg. public access, security provisions.
Security considerations may dictate preferred exits for normal use whilst some regularly used exits may not be available at all times that a ship or vessel is occupied and therefore will not form part of the escape route.
(e) The fire detection and warning systems provided.
(f) The evacuation strategy for the ship or installation and any variations of strategy within different areas of the ship or installation. Some strategies rely uniquely on the occupants responding to an evacuation alarm whilst others use trained crew to complement the alarm and initiate and control evacuation.
(g) The degree of familiarity of the occupants with the ship, installation or vessel.
 
4.2 Planning
An escape route signing system should provide simple identification of the means of escape provision to allow people to escape with the minimum of assistance, possibly under conditions of stress. To be effective the signing must be complete to provide both location and orientation information as well as directional information to the prescribed destination. The signing system must avoid possible points of confusion and in particular give no cause for hesitation or decision making amongst alternatives. People escaping should be provided with clear, unambiguous directions from any place in the ship throughout the escape route until a place of relative safety is reached. The means of escape safety signing system shall, wherever possible, be complimented by public information and facilities signs on exact location within the ship or installation.
The following areas should be considered:-
(a) The siting and nature of all designated escape routes, noting particularly the location of stairs and other changes in level and any changes of direction.
(b) The relative conspicuity or otherwise of escape routes.
(c) Any areas of high fire risk.
(d) The position of all doors and other exits sited within escape routes.
(e) Any escape routes which cross open areas.
(f) The provision, if any, of any other systems to assist in wayfinding in the event of an emergency evacuation such as low-mounted guidance systems or audible devices.
(g) The lighting levels within the building under both normal and mains-failure conditions. Ships containing entertainment areas may have low lighting levels as part of normal operation.
(h) The location and lighting of any other signs, architectural features, decor or barriers that could conceal or divert attention from a fire safety sign. A duty free store, for instance, may have many signs which compete for the viewer's attention.
(i) The type, location and lighting of any other fire safety signs.
(j) The main stairways that give access to different decks and the location of exits to the assembly stations and embarkation stations.
 
4.3 Disembarkation and evacuation plan.
4.3.0 General evacuation theme
Passengers and visitors will be given instructions immediately on boarding as to which assembly station they need to assemble in case of emergency. In order to expediently move to assembly stations, the signing system shall place emphasis on communication of both location of the evacuee within the ship or installation and the logic of direction to the designated destination within the zones. It is expected that priority will be given always to the signing of the shortest and principle egress routes to the assembly stations although the signing system will also provide information on alternative, secondary egress routes to cope with crowding or obstruction.
 
4.3.1 Location theme within the ship or installation.
The basic principle shall be that the ship or marine installation is zoned and split into discrete and identifiable evacuation compartments in order to provide the first level of information for orientation to occupants. The zones shall follow the basic logic of zones marked sequentially from bow to stern or from front to rear of an installation with letters from A to Z. The levels and decks within the ship or installation shall be numbered from bottom to top hull to bridge in ascending order from 0 to the number of decks. Depending on the width of the vessel from port to starboard the ship may be split on the centre line offering a as port and b as starboard sides. See Example in Annex A
This will immediately provide the information required for the location and naming of assembly stations.
 
4.3.2. Marking of means of escape: doors and routes which are part of the means of escape - both primary and secondary means of escapes - in machinery spaces, alleyways, public rooms, recreation rooms, mess rooms and large normally manned crew working spaces - such as large workshops, galleys, main laundries, etc. - should be clearly identified by proper signs. In general and where possible, a sign should be fitted over the door but, where the door is not clearly visible from within the space it serves (due to the arrangement of the space), or where the distance from the considered space and the escape door is too big (e.g. more than 20 m) further signs should be provided to indicate the direction in which the door lies.
 
4.3.2.1 assembly station direction signs should be provided in all passenger spaces and in general along passenger escape routes, such as stairways, alleyways, public spaces not used as assembly stations, in entrance halls and spaces linking public spaces, and on outside decks in the vicinity of doors giving access to assembly stations or to the routes to the assembly stations;
 
4.3.2.1 in passenger cabin alleyways, assembly station directional signs should consist at least in the relevant IMO symbol with directional arrow or escape symbol; at the embarkation deck, assembly station directional signs with the relevant identification letter (or number) should be located to direct passengers to assembly station entrance doors or areas. Entrances to assembly stations shall be identified by the relevant luminous / illuminated "assembly station" sign with IMO symbol and identification letter (or number).
 
4.3.2.2 In crew accommodation and service spaces, escape signs or signs containing the escape symbol only should identify the primary escape route and primary escape doors. Secondary means of escape doors should be indicated as well.
 
4.3.3 Location and choice of assembly stations.
Assembly stations are chosen to be strategically located within each zone to accommodate the number of evacuees without excessive crowding and where they can be assembled and effectively instructed to proceed to embarkation stations in an orderly and informed way. Assembly stations are also chosen following detailed risk assessment within the ship or marine installation to be places of relative safety.
Assembly stations are marked with the signs as given in Appendix X The safety signs shall show the embarkation station information to reassure evacuees that they are clearly in the right place. From the assembly station it shall be immediately apparent through the signing system the direction and egress route to embarkation stations via exits and exits for emergency use only.
 
4.3.4.
Both the primary and secondary escape routes shall be indicated by means of escape signs as shown in clause ?
 
4.3.5 All assembly stations shall be sequentially identified by the "ASSEMBLY STATION" sign and a letter, starting from the top to bottom, from front to back and from starboard side to port side.
 
4.3.6 In each cabin and each public space, a mimic sign must be displayed. It shall be properly oriented in relation to its position on the ship.
 
4.3.7 Fire and life-saving appliance shipboard safety shall be used for all equipment along the escape route and shall be located according to ISO/WD XXXX Part2
 
4.3.8 The manual showing the escape route design and the assigned signs shall be approved by the competent authority and kept on board for the use of the Officers.
 
4.4. Identification of Primary and Secondary means of escapes
4.4.1 Primary means of escape doors and routes should be marked by photo-luminescent escape signs1 with relevant escape symbol. Moreover, primary means of escape doors relevant to main vertical zones and large normally manned spaces should be identified by luminous / illuminated signs.
 
4.4.2 Secondary means of escape doors and routes should be marked by photo-luminescent escape signs1 (without symbol).
 
4.4.3 Primary means of escape doors and other openings that are normally used as throughfares should be clearly marked with "Exit" and the relevant escape symbol.
 
4.4.4 Primary means of escape doors and other openings that are not normally used as throughfares, but which can be used for emergency purposes, should be clearly marked with "Emergency Exit" and the relevant escape symbol.
 
4.4.5 Secondary means of escape doors and other openings that are normally used as throughfares should be clearly marked with "Exit" (without escape symbol).
 
4.4.6 Secondary means of escape doors and other openings that are not normally used as throughfares, but which can be used for emergency purposes, should be clearly marked with "Emergency Exit" (without escape symbol).
 
4.4.7 In small passenger spaces, crew/service and working spaces (e.g. offices, laundrettes, barber shops, pantries, steward stations, workshops, public toilets, etc.) as well as in not normally manned spaces (e.g.A.C. stations, stores, cold rooms, machinery spaces, etc.) signs relevant both primary and secondary means of escape can be of photo-luminescent type only.
 
4.4.8 Following table is provided to summarise the present system and can provide an easy guideline when designing escape signage plans:
 
TABLE 1 − ESCAPE SIGNAGE ARRANGEMENT
Area primary escape door leading to... secondary escape door leading to... Primary escape sign2 Secondary escape sign
Passenger area Passenger Space Passenger Space EXIT with symbol EXIT
Passenger Space Crew / service Space EXIT with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT
Crew / service Space Passenger Space EMERGENCY EXIT with symbol EXIT
Crew / service space Crew / service Space EXIT3 with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT3
Crew or service area Crew / service space Crew / service Space EXIT with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT
Passenger space Crew / service Space EMERGENCY EXIT with symbol EXIT
Crew / service space Passenger Space EXIT with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT
Passenger Space Passenger Space EXIT3 with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT3
Machinery and auxiliary spaces low the bulkhead deck Vertical ladder Watertight door ESCAPE with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT
Inclined stair Watertight door or vertical ladder EXIT with symbol EMERGENCY EXIT
 
1 "Exit", "Emergency Exit" or "Escape" as described at items 3.1.3 to 3.1.6 and summarised at Table 1
2 See para 3.1.1
3 The suitable wording /e.g. "Exit" or "Emergency Exit") should be decided in consideration of the arrangement of the space and of the distance of the door from the nearest escape stairway enclosure.
 
4.4.9 Escape signs in cabin alleyways
In passenger cabin alleyways, as well as in crew accommodation spaces, luminous / illuminated escape signs located at the exit door in conjunction with photo-luminescent escape direction signs5 should direct passengers and crew to the primary means of escape of the relevant area (e.g. main vertical zone). The location of the escape signs should permit people in exit from their relevant cabin to quickly and easily identify the direction of escape. In general, at least one of the above mentioned signs should be is visible from each branch of the escape corridor. Consideration should be given in order that - within a main vertical zone - the distance separating the signs is, in general, no more than 20 m.
 
4.4.10 Escape signs in escape stairway enclosures
In passenger escape stairway enclosures, assembly station direction signs (with escape stair symbol) should be located at each deck by the stairs to direct passengers to the assembly stations deck.
 
4.4.11 In crew escape stairway enclosures, direction signs with escape symbols should be located at each deck to direct crew to the embarkation deck; alternatively, lifeboat/liferaft signs with escape stair symbol can be used in substitution of above mentioned signs.
 
4.4.12 At the embarkation deck, escape signs should identify the exit doors to the embarkation areas and to the lifeboats and liferafts stations.
 
4.5. Escape information signs inside passenger cabins
4.5.1 Inside each passenger cabin a placard - installed on the interior side of the entrance door - should inform passengers on the location of the assigned assembly station; on the primary and secondary escape routes to the assigned assembly station; on the design of the assembly station direction signs; on the design and meaning of escape signs4.
 
4.4. Design of signs
Signs should consist of a graphical symbol and should normally incorporate or be accompanied by a supplementary text sign and an arrow (see clauses 4.6 and 4.7 respectively).
The graphical symbol used for escape route signs should comply with ISO3864 Part 1 and ISO/WDXXX part 1 and ISO/WDXXX part 2.
The size of the graphical symbol element will determine the maximum viewing distance for escape route signs. (See Tables 1, 2 & 3 clause ?).
 
To avoid confusion all signs within a system of escape route signing should be of similar style, design, size and format. All shipboard means of escape signs shall be illuminated by emergency lighting and have photoluminescent properties with luminance decay performance no less than any installed photoluminescent low location lighting elements as described in ISO 15370. Shipboard means of escape signs shall be classified according to ISO/DIS 17398
 
5 "Assembly station" direction signs for passenger corridors; "Exit", "Emergency Exit" or "Lifeboats/liferafts" direction signs for crew accommodation areas, as per owner standard.
4 Such information can be included into the emergency information sign prescribed by SOLAS, Ch.III.







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更新日: 2019年11月30日

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