5 Design of shipboard safety signs
5.1 Shipboard safety signing and associated systems and notices shall communicate the intended safety information by the use of one or more of the following elements. Designers shall combine these elements to give the essential details of the specific safety message needed according to the type of safety sign required.
5.2 The graphical symbol or symbols used on a safety sign shall be used to convey only one safety message as follows:
a) a prohibition sign shall show only what or who is forbidden
b) a mandatory sign shall show only what action is required
c) a hazard sign shall show only the nature of the potential harm
d) a safe condition sign shall show only the safety action or the location of the safety equipment or the safety facility
e) a fire equipment sign shall show only the location of the fire equipment or the type of fire equipment or how it should be used
5.3 The safety sign for which tile new graphical symbol is being designed shall be assigned a meaning and a function, and the image content of the graphical symbol shall be decided, including identification of the critical details (see Figure 1 for an example). The assigned meaning and function should be unambiguous.
Meaning − No smoking.
Function − To prohibit the smoking of cigarettes, pipes, cigars, etc.
Image content − Cigarette shown in profile with smoke. Critical details are cigarette end and smoke plume.
Figure 1 ― Example of assignment of meaning to a safety sign
5.4 Shipboard safety signs, markers and notices shall be designed using the safety colours and the specific safety meaning as given and specified in ISO 3864 Part 1 2002, and as illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 ― Safety colours and safety meaning
5.5 The safety colour shall represent no less than the areas of the safety sign as required in ISO 3864 Part 1 except for the application requirement of certain shipboard safety signs for the incorporation of explanatory text within the geometric shape, the area for which shall be considered as that of the safety colour.
5.6 Explanatory text shall be in the safety colour against the safety contrast colour as an enclosure as shown in figure 2.
5.7 Prior to designing new graphical symbols, designers shall search existing sources for the intended meaning.
5.7.1 Shipboard safety signs that are intended to communicate specific safety messages to passengers and crew that are usually found in public areas or workplaces shall use the graphical symbols for these specific safety meanings from [ISO 7010:2003].
5.7.2 Shipboard safety signs that are required to convey specific safety meanings on board ship are given in Part 2 of this Standard.
NOTE As new shipboard safety signs are developed to meet specific needs not envisioned in this standard, designers are encouraged to seek standardization of those signs into Part 2 of this standard via ISO/TC 8/SC 1, and submit to ISO/TC 145/SC2 for inclusion in ISO 7010 if they may have a more general use in other contexts.
5.7.3 Graphical symbols shall be designed to be simple and understandable and style shall be used only to create better understanding. Designers seeking graphical symbols for the communication of safety messages to passengers and without the use of supplementary text shall evaluate the comprehension, legibility and recognition by audience test. Where appropriate, and for standardization in ISO 7010, then ISO 9186 2000 shall be used to evaluate comprehension.
5.7.4 Graphical symbols appearing on safety instructions, notices and plans shall be the same as appear on the corresponding safety signs except those graphical symbols specifically for the use of specialist, trained crew members or professional fire fighters and safety or medical personnel. Designers shall propose graphical symbols that can be sized appropriately to ensure legibility is maintained for the safety sign at the required observation distance.
5.7.5 The design of a graphical symbol should:
a) be simple in order to facilitate comprehension and reproduction
b) be readily associated with its intended meaning
c) be easily distinguishable from other graphical symbols
d) contain only those details that contribute to understanding
5.7.6 The graphical symbol original shall be created within the template specified for the particular type of safety sign in clause 8. The graphical symbol original shall be as large as possible within the template, but shall not extend into the exclusion band of the safety sign as indicated on the template.
5.7.7 Any lines used in a graphical symbol original shall be a minimum of 1 mm thick, as illustrated in Figure 3.
Meaning − Beware slippery surface
Function − To warn of a hazard from slippery floor surfaces
Image content − Human figure slipping on floor surface, represented by a line. Critical details are human figure and floor line.
Figure 3 ― Example of the use of line thickness in a graphical symbol original
5.7.8 If two or more graphical symbols or graphical symbol elements are combined to form a new graphical symbol, the meaning assigned to the new graphical symbol shall be consistent with the meanings of the individual graphical symbols or graphical symbol elements used. The new graphical symbol should consist of as few component elements as possible and the meaning should be unambiguous. Safety signs in which two or more graphical symbols or graphical symbol elements have been combined to produce a new graphical symbol shall be considered as new safety signs.
18.104.22.168 Examples of the combination of graphical symbols to form a new graphical symbol are graphical symbols which include a determinant, as illustrated in figure 4.
Meaning − Location of first aid eyewash/location of emergency eyewash.
Function − To indicate the location of an eyewash facility for use for first aid and in emergencies.
Image content − Spray of droplets towards an eye with determinant (cross) at the top right hand side. Critical details are determinant (cross), eye and droplet spray.
Figure 4 ― Combination of symbols to create a new symbol
5.7.9 Prohibition shall be indicated only by use of a prohibition sign incorporating a negation bar, as specified in [BS 5499-1:2002, 9.2]. No other form of negation shall be used. in particular, crosses shall not be placed over graphical symbol elements. The graphical symbol shall be designed such that when placed in the template specified, the negation bar does not obscure critical detail. The negation bar shall be uninterrupted from top left to bottom right.
6 Application and use of a safety sign
The context in which the safety sign is to be used shall be clearly described providing essential information for correct use and understanding, as illustrated in figure 5.
Figure 5 ― Example of a safety sign
Use of explanatory text can increase comprehensibility of graphical symbols which may be unfamiliar to the viewer. The need for the use of explanatory text as the preferred format of the safety sign shall be evaluated based on the familiarity of the object depicted by the graphical symbol. Examples of safety signs incorporating explanatory text are provided in figure 6.
Figure 6 ― Examples of a safety sign with explanatory text
8 Supplementary text - Supplementary text signs and language
8.1 Supplementary text signs may be used in conjunction with graphical symbols to increase the comprehensibility and understanding of the safety message displayed.
8.1.1 The text used with safety signs shall be a clear and precise description of the exact meaning of the safety sign. Text shall not be used to attempt to give more than one type of safety message with one sign. More detailed safety signs shall be designed using combination signs.
8.1.2 Graphical symbol safety signs shah have supplementary text signs in the English language. [The English text may be supplemented with the language of the ship's flag.]
8.1.3 Text shall use Helvetica medium or other similar font without serif. Letter height shall be in accordance with a distance necessary for comprehension of the safety message.
8.2 Examples of safety signs with supplementary text signs are provided in figure 7.
Figure 7 ― Examples of the use of supplementary text signs
Complementary signs may be provided to give specific information pertaining to another sign. Examples are complementary signs giving deck numbers or assembly station letters in conjunction with another sign identifying a station or item of safety equipment. Complementary signs should be located to the left or right of a graphical symbol, in the form given in Part 2 of this International Standard.
10 Illumination and contrast of shipboard safety signs
10.1 Shipboard safety signs, markers and notices shall communicate the intended safety message at all times and shall be illuminated under normal operating conditions. Illumination shall be no less than 50 lux from typically daylight sources for signs illuminated by reflected light. All safety signs, markers and notices (escape route, life saving appliances and fire equipment signs) that are not illuminated either internally or externally with an alternative emergency power supply shall be photoluminescent (phosphorescent). Safety signs intended to be illuminated by reflected light shall have surface properties suitable to reflect the light uniformly across the surface. Photoluminescent safety signs shall be designed using photoluminescent material having no less than the minimum luminance decay performance specified in ISO 15370.
10.2 The safety signs shall carry the manufacturer's name and coded for part number identification and luminance decay performance in order to correspond to the ship's records.
10.3 Shipboard safety signs shall always have borders in the safety contrast colour, and photoluminescent for photoluminescent signs. The border shall be no less than 5 mm in width.
Combination signs may be designed to provide complementary safety messages, as illustrated in figure 8.
Figure 8 ― Examples of combination signs
Use and meaning of arrows used in safety signs shall be as specified in table X.
13.1 Safety notices contain instructions and are, in principle, a list, in chronological order, of actions to be taken or instructions to be followed. Safety notices apply to behaviour to be adopted in an emergency or incident or for the correct use of equipment
13.2 A safety notice shall use colours, shapes and graphical symbols from ISO 3864 Part1, ISO 7010 and Part 2 of this Standard.
13.3 Text in safety notices shall be typically Helvetica medium or similar font without serif. Letter height shall be no less than 5 mm, or a size legible at a viewing distance of no less than 500 mm, and shall use upper and lower case.
Safety markings and their safety meanings shall be as illustrated in table X.
15 Specification of durability characteristics and photometric properties of photoluminescent and ordinary safety signs
Shipboard safety signs, markings and notices shall be designed using materials suitable for their intended environment. Manufacturers shall clearly state suitability for interior or exterior use. All signs suitable for exterior use shall be protected against deterioration by UV and humidity. ISO/DIS 17398 Safety colours and safety signs - Durability of safety signs, shall be used to specify durability characteristics and to define photometric properties required for shipboard safety signs.